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Despite these closures, the trade simply shifted to the more accommodating port within the Portuguese enclave of Macau.

Many coolies were first deceived or kidnapped and, then kept in barracoons (detention centres) or loading vessels in the ports of departure, as were African slaves.

Some of these labourers signed contracts based on misleading promises, some were kidnapped and sold into the trade, some were victims of clan violence whose captors sold them to coolie brokers, while others sold themselves to pay off gambling debts.

For those who did sign on voluntarily, they generally signed on for a period of two to five years.

Labour-intensive industries, such as cotton and sugar plantations, mines and railway construction, in the colonies were left without a cheap source of manpower.

As a consequence, a large-scale slavery-like trade in Asian (primarily Indian and Chinese) indentured labourers began in the 1820s to fill this vacuum.

Australia began importing workers in 1848, and the United States began using them in 1865 on the First Transcontinental Railroad construction.

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However, over a dollar would be taken from them every month in order to pay off their debts.Although there are reports of ships for Asian coolies carrying women and children, the great majority of them were men.Finally, regulations were put in place, as early as 1837 by the British authorities in India to safeguard these principles of voluntary, contractual work and safe and sanitary transportation although in practice this rarely occurred especially during examples such as the Pacific Passage or the Guano Pits of Peru.Those who ran estates believed that Chinese and Japanese Coolies were harder working, united, and clean.Indian Coolies, on the other hand, were viewed as dirty and were treated as children who required constant supervision.

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